The Portuguese Californians Immigrants in Agriculture


A Treasure and a Wonderful Remembrance.

The first part of this publication is a “revisitation” of Dr. Graves’ 1977 dissertation with a re-write for a general audience, with improved graphics and many photographs of historical importance. The second part is a thorough assessment of Portuguese involvement in California agriculture at the turn of the 21st Century.

The book includes a detailed counting and locating of all Portuguese in California in 1860 and 1880, using the original, handwritten, unpublished censuses of population for the entire state of California and unpublished membership lists of Portuguese fraternal lodges in order to determine the settlement patterns. After 1930, accurate location data were no longer available from the census bureau. The result of this research was an in-depth analysis of the Portuguese involvement in dairying in California.